Infective Endocarditis: Definition Infection of the heart valves. Pathophysiology Since the valves do not have their own blood supply, the immune system can’t get white cells to the valves, making them susceptable to bacterial infection. There are two main types: Acute – usually caused by staphylococcus epidermis, comes on over a few days/weeks. Subacute– usually caused… Continue reading Infective Endocarditis(Review)
Bleeding Disorder’s: 1 Inherited 1.1 Haemophilia A 1.2 Haemophilia B 1.3 von Willebrand’s disease 2 Acquired 2.1 Iatragenic 2.2 Liver failure Inherited Haemophilia A This is the commonest severe inherited bleeding disorder. Basically, you get a deficiency of factor VIII, so you can’t clot properly. This means that if you cut yourself, you may not… Continue reading Bleeding Disorder’s
Abstract (provisional) Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, <32 completed gestational weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants. Only a few publications analyse changes of their short-term outcome in a geographically defined area over… Continue reading Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years
What is the diagnosis? A.Diverticulosis B.Familial adenomatous polyposis C.Foreign object ingestion D.Pneumatosis cystoides coli E.Trichinosis Ans: D. Pneumatosis Cystoides coli- look for the gas(identified by hypoechoic shadows or black grape like bubbles in this film) within the bowel walls… Ref: www.Medscape.com : Textbook of Surgery S.C.Bansal : Bailey & Love
Circumventricular organs are those areas of the brain that lie outside the blood brain barrier. They contain receptors which detect changes in body fluids such as osmolality and glucose concentration. The circumventricular organs are: -Subfornical organ -Subcommisural organ -Organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis -Posterior pituitary -Pineal gland -Area postrema -Median eminence
The mnemonic for rememering the names of the essential amino acids: “Look There, Look There, VIP Man” The essential amino acids are: Leucine Threonine Lysine Tryptophan Valine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Methionine Some other amino acids are considered to be essential under certain conditions.
Renal cell carcinoma can occur in a patient with a solitary kidney The current recommendation is to do partial nephrectomy as long as sufficient margin of normal tissue is available This helps to avoid the requirement of lifelong hemodialysis Partial nephrectomy cannot be done in those with a large tumour or multiple small tumours throughout the kidney… Continue reading Tumour in the solitary kidney – Management
Whipple procedure consists of pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by pancreaticojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy Since the common bile duct is attached to the jejunum, the sphincteric action of sphincter of Oddi is no longer present Bile continuously flows from the common bile duct to the jejunum Hence the gall bladder can no longer perform its function of storage… Continue reading Why is the gall bladder removed during Whipple procedure?
It is also called secondary drowning or near drowning. It refers to a peron who was resuscitated after drowning and survives for 24hours. He may develop hypoxemia resulting in brain damage, cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, myocardial anoxia, cardiac arrhythimas, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic acidosis, hemoglobinuria, fever and sepsis. Death occurs in about 20% of victims.… Continue reading Post immersion syndrome
It is a set of 4 conditions as set by the Harvard School of Medicine for diagnosis of irreversible coma. They are: Unreceptivity and unresponsiveness Lack of movements or breathing Absent reflexes Flat electroencephalogram (confirmatory) These conditions also are to be met: Body temperature >= 32 C Not under the influence of CNS… Continue reading Harvard criteria for brain death