IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER
- The Percentage of blood alcohol in the stage of “dead drunk” is 0.5%.
- Pisiform gets ossified by 12 yrs of age.
- By 14 yrs. patella gets ossified.
- Anterior fontanelle closes by 18 months of age.
- The height of a child is double of birth height by 4 years of age,
- Under IPC, a person below 7 years is not criminally responsible.
- Fatal period of Datura poisoning is 24 hours.
- In India, rigor mortis sets within 1-2 hours.
- While dispatching blood and urine for chemical analysis, sodium fluoride is added as preservative in concentration of 50 mg/10ml.
- Critical level of alcohol in blood is 0.15%.
- The minimum age for giving consent for surgery is 18 years.
- In fractured ends of bone, soft provisional callus is formed by 15 hours.
- The minimum time required for adipocere formation in a dead body is 21 days.
- Indian Medical Council Act was enacted in 1956.
- Mental retardation is I.Q. Below 70.
- Ratio between ethyl alcohol in blood to urine is 1:1.33
- Gas rigidity appears after 72 hours.
- Marbling is noticed by 36 hours.
- Full development of rigor mortis takes about 12 hours.
- In exhumation, 6-7 samples of earth are collected.
- Intercourse with wife below 15 years of age is considerable rape.
- Fatal period of aconite isusually 1-5 hours.
- Cooling of body is gradual upto 1-3 hours.
- Hypostasis is mottled within first 3 hours of death.
- Killing range of a militry rifle is 3000 yards.
- Juvenile offender is a person under 16 years
- The dispersion of pellets is seen usually at distance beyond 10 feet.
- In a gunshot wound, the presence of singeing of hair or charring of skin denotes a fire up to 18 inches.
- Dispersion of pellets in shotgun injury is calculated as dispersion in inches = 1.5 times the dispersion in yards.
- An infant born before 210 days is not legally considered capable of maintaining a separate existence.
- A bruise showing bluish black discolouration is 4 days old.
- The upper limit of safety for carbon monoxide in air is 0.01%.
- Rh positivity in India is 93%.
- In an abrasion, the scab usually dries and falls between 4-6 days.
- Fatal dose of opium is 2 gm.
- The range of an air rifle is about 90 yards.
- Mixed dentition is seen in children between 6-12 years of age.
- Basisphenoid unites the basi-occiput at the age to 22 years.
- First permanent molar appears at age of 6-7 years.
- Judicial first class Magistrate can pass a sentence of imprisonment upto
- Age of maturity for those under court of wards is 21 years. In India,
sexual maturity is gained at 14 years of age.
- The degree of accuracy in determining sex from long bones is 80%.
- Fatal period of sulphuric acid poisoning is 18-24 hours.
- Multiplying factors for estimating stature from humerus and femur in
males are 5-5.3 and 3.6-3.8 respectively.
- Colliquative liquefaction is seen within 1 week after death.
- A contusion assumes green colour by 6 days.
- Marriage age for boys and girls are 21 years and 18 years respectively.
- Internal organs take 24 hours to cool. A person becomes major at the
age of 18 years. Eruption of temporary teeth is completed by 2 to 2.5 years.
- Foetal parts can be detected on plain X-ray usually by 16 weeks.
- Child below 12 years is not required to take an oath.
- Xiphoid process unites with sternum at age of 40 years.
- Cranial capacity is 10% less in females.
- Nuclear features persist in decomposition for a period of 2-3 years.
- Precipitin test is positive to be opium in dead body upto 10 years.
- After death, benzidine test is positive upto 150 years. Bones begin to
decompose after death in 3-10 years.
- Less than 7 aminoacids in bone suggest age of bone after death as
more than 100 years. The rate of cooling of body in first 6 hours is 2.5°F and
in next 6 hours as 1.5″-2.0cF. Victim of drowning in a state of suspended
animation can be revived as long as 10-20 minutes.
- Centre of ossification for pisiform bone appears at an age of 10-12
- The floatation time in summer for a dead body after drowning is one
- The age of 15 years old female is best determined by the radiography
of upper end of radius and ulna.
- Maggots in a dead body do not appear before 48 hours.
- Hairs become loose after 72 hours of death.
- Epiphyseal union of sternal end of clavicle occurs at age of 22 years.
- Washer woman’s hands and feet usually occur within 12-18 hours.
- Saponification in drowning occurs in about 5 weeks.
- Death ensues in about 5 mts. of complete submersion.
- By ABO.RH, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%.
- Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years
of age. Gustafson’s method for estimation age of adult over 21 years.
- In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours.
- The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum
- If a person is absent from his usual haunts, and has not been heard for
7 hears, he is presumed to be dead.
- Infanticide means unlawful destruction of child below 1 year of age.
- By ABO, Rh, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%
- Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years
- In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours
- The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum
- In sin of Gomorrah, buccal swabs are useful upto 9 hours
- In most countries, breath alcohol concentration 35 mg/100 ml is
considered an offence After absorption, the ratio of alcohol in blood and urine
is constant and is 1:1.31 Histologically, reticulum fibres in an abrasion are
seen on 8 days
- Widmark’s formula for urine analysis of alcohol is 3/4 prq
- Pancreas constitute 0.1% of body weight
- Punishment for false evidence is given under section 193 of IPC
- Length of a female larynx is about 3.8 cm
- Calcification of third molar begins at 8-10 years.
- Lip prints on cheiloscopy are divided into 8 patterns
- ?gm tablet of aluminium phosphide is able to liberate 1.0 gm
- The diameter of “human hair at 15 years of age is 0.053 ram *
- Alcohol gaze nystagmus is produced at an average blood levels of 80
- The residual alcohol in mouth takes about 20 min to disappear and
within this period breath analyser test may be false positive
- Skeletal muscles constitute about 29% of body weight
- Term ‘under the influence’ of alcohol is used when blood concentration
- Statutory rape is rape under 15 years of age
- Weight for occluding internal jugular vein hanging is 2 kg
- Majority of deaths due to Aluminium phosphide occurs in within 24 hours
- During sleep, rectal temperature is 0.5-1.0°C lower
- Drowned body floats in about 12-18 hours in summer S
- Bones constitute about 12% of body weight
- Absence of III molar tooth indicates that the person is definitely under
the age of 17 years
- In a dead body, maggots in rainy day are seen in 6 hours.
- Arsenic, Aconite and Dhatura are generally used as homicidal poisons.
- Ricin is the active principle of croton oil seed.
- Abrin is the active principle of abrus precatorius.
- Soneryl is a coloured babriturate.
- Breath alcohol can be measured by Alcometer or Drunkometer.
- The fatal dose of Dhatura is about one grain.
- Physostigmine can be regarded as the specific antidote of Dhatura.
- Amygdaline is the glucosides of vegetable origin found in cyanides.
- The process of putrefaction can be retarded by carbon monoxide gas.
- Euthanasia means “Mercy killing”.
- Joule burn is seen in electrocution.
- Amyl nitrate is an antidote for poisoning due to hydrocyanic acid.
- Olive green discoloration of urine on exposure to air is seen in poisoning
due to carbolic acid.
- Overlying is a type of smothering.
- Optic atrophy is the characteristic feature of poisoning by methyl
- Dryness of mouth, dilated pupils and delirium are symptoms of Dhatura
poisoning. (All ‘D’s)
- The first permanent tooth to erupt is first molar.
- Dying declaration can be recorded by a medical officer.
- Presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth and nostrils is seen in
- Privation of any member of joint is a grievous hurt.
- Pugilistic attitude is seen in burn death due to coagulation of proteins.
- Dying declaration should be recorded by Magistrate.
- Nalorphine is an antidote for morphine.
- Locard’s principle states that every contact leaves a trace.
- The strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid.
- Arborescent markings are seen in lightening.
- Before performing Postmortem examination, body should be identified byPolicemen.
- Warrant case means a case relating to an offence punishbale with
death, imprisonment for life or for a term exceeding two years.
- In civil cases, a reasonable sum for travelling expenses is generally
tendered when the summons is served. This is known as conduct money. It is
paid by the party that has called his as a witness.
- Hair cells are of special interest in cell sexing since both Barr body and
Y chromosome can be demonstrated.
- Nails, hairs and long bones are preserved in cases of chronic arsenic
- Postmortem fibrinous clots in heart are known as “Cardiac polyp”.
- The surest sign of death is putrefaction.
- The rigor mortis start first at upper eye-lids.
- Dribbling of saliva from the angle of the mouth is generally considered
as the surest sign of hanging.
- Presence of soot in respiratory tract is the surest sign of burn.
- Strong sulphuric acid when thrown on the face of a person is known
as “Vitreol throwing”.
- Black gun powder consists of potassium nitrate, sulphur, and charcoal.
- Nitrocellulose or Nitroglycerine is used as a smokeless gun powder.
- Richochette bullet is one which strikes any other surface before striking
- The pulmonary lesion in the injury of air blast is called “Blast lung”.
- Loss of virginity is called defloration.
- The Buccal coitus is called “Sin of Gomorrah”.
- The commission of sexual assalut upon a dead body is
- “Testamentary capcity” is the capacity of a person to make a valid will.
- Malpraxis is defined as want of reasonable skill and or willful negligence
on the part of doctor resulting in deterioration of patients’ health or his death.
- Copper sulphate is used as an antidote to phsophorus.
- ‘Gyroget’ are cartridges or miniature rockets driven by solid fuel, which
produces considerable heat and smokeless gas on burning.
- Forensic means courts of law.
- Deposition means a statement on oath made by a witness in a judicial
proceeding. It is taken down in writing and signed by the witness and
- Document means any matter expressed or described upon any
substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of
- Evidence includes all legal means which help to prove or disprove any
matter of fat, the truth of which is submitted to judicial investigation. It can
be oral (direct, indirect or hearsay), documentary & circumstantial.
- Hurt is defined as bodily pain, disease or infirmity caused to any person.
- Injury includes every inquiry other than a trial, conducted by a
Magistrate or court.
- Investigation includes all the proceedings for the collection of evidence
conducted by a Police officer or by any person other than a magistrate who
is authorised by a magistrate on his behalf.
- Jury means a body of persons sworn to render verdict in a court of
justice. It is composed of uneven number and not less than 7 and more than 9 persons.
- Metropolitan area means any area in the state comprising a city or a
town whose population exceeds one millin.
- Offence means any act of omission made punishable by law for the time
being in force.
- Perjury means wilful utterance of falsehood under oath.
- Plantiff is one who brings an action in a court of law.
- Summons case means a case relating to an offence punishable with
imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
- Testimony means the evidence, oral or written, of a witness under
- Warrant means a written authority under “hand and seal”. It is used for
the arrest of persons or for their forcible production in a court of law
- Traumatic rupture of hymen is seen on posterolateral aspect.
- Taylor gave a formula on rate of decomposition of dead body in air,
water and earth.
- Most reliable method of determining personal identity is Dactylography.
- Contre-Coupe injury is seen in head injury.
- Strychnine acts on anterior horn cells.
- Last organ to putrefy in mate is prostate whereas in female it is
- In Carboluria, urine turns green on exposure to air.
- Cyanide poisoning produces cherry red colour.
- McEwen’s sign is seen in alcoholism.
- Cutis anserina is seen in drowning.
- Shaking palsy or ‘mad Hatters’ is seen with mercury poisoning.
- Poison which can be detected in burnt bodies in arsenic.
- Cepahlic index helps in identification of race.
- Tentative cuts are seen in suicides.
- Pugilistic attitude is seen in antemortem or postmortem burns.
- Death in police custody is investigated by Magistrate.
- Precipitin test is used to identify human blood in stains.
- Gelsimium is a spinal cord poison.
- Desferroxamine is antidote used in iron poisoning.
- Spalding’s sign is seen in maceration.
- Impotence is inability to perform the sexual act.
- Smack is crude form of heroin.
- Ganja is obtained from flowering tops.
- Stomach may be greenish in poisoning due to nitric acid.
- Lines of Zahn are present in antemortem clots.
- Conium is a peripheral poison.
- Emphysema aqueosum is seen in wet drowning.
- Formication (Magnan’s symptom) is seen in cocaine dependence.
- Rigor mortis is simulated by cadaveric spasm.
- Thorn apple is Datura stramonium.
- Dirt collar is seen in fire arm entry wound.
- Apoplexy is cerebral congestion.
- Feminine of impotence is frigidity.
- In oath taking, a medical man does not require to keep his hands on a
- Thanatology is science that deals with death.
- Number of hours since death is calculated by multiplying the fall inrectal temperature with 0.67.
- Dichotomy is related to splitting of fees.
- Fracture of hyoid bone in a case of strangulation is commonly seen inthe greater horn.
- In a fresh case of death due to ventricular fibrillation, heart at
postmortem will be flabby.
- Punctate basophilia is seen in lead poisoning.
- Felony is a category of rape, murder or burglary.
- Testamentary capacity is related to will.
- McNaughten was an accused.
- Accepted procedure of first aid for cafe coronary is Heimlich manoeuvre.
- Mode of death from obstruction of air passages from within is anoxicanoxia.
- Brain may be preserved in normal saline or rectified spirit.
- CSF is preserved in poisoning due to alcohol.
- Long bones are preserved inpoisoning due to arsenic, lead or antimony.
- Exhumation is usually done in the early morning.
- In India, Exhumation is done for Mohammadans and Christians.
- Macroscopically and microscopically, there will not be any change tothe heart in case of myocardial infarction death up to 8 hours.
- Foamy liver is due to bubbing up of gas.
- Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level is low in CML.
- The essential lesion of coronary atherosclerosis is found in intima.
- The classical site of ischaemic colitis is splenic flexure.
- The rigor mortis disappears in the order of eyelids, neck, thorax, lowerlumbs (in the order of appearance).
- Primary relaxation is stage of somatic death.
- After death, the onset of putrefaction is in the stage of secondary
- Species of origin of blood is determined by precipitin test.
- It is a criminal offence in India, for a person to drive a motor vehicle
after consuming alcohol.
- Dum dum bullet is so called because tip is chiselled off.
- Cyanides mainly affect Cytochrome oxidase.
- In electrocution, death is most often due to ventricular fibrillation.
- Le facies sympathique is seen in hanging.
- The characteristic sign of Korsakoff psychosis is amnesia.
- Aconite is most commonly used as a homicidal poison.
- Alcohol is maximally absorbed from small intestine.
- Absolute alcohol has 99.95% alcohol.
- Visceras obtained from a body due to death from alcoholic intoxication are preserved is suprasaturated saline.
- In strychnine poisoning, rigor mortis sets in early and lasts shortly.
- A short barreled rifle is called carbine.
- The most fragile bone in skull to get fractured is temporal
- The most common type of skull fracture is fissure.
- Rigor mortis sets early in cases with deaths due to apoplexy.
- In cadaveric spasm, stage of primary relaxation is missing.
- Heat stiffening is due to exposure of body to temperature above 75°C.
- The presence of blackening, tatooing and scortching in a shotgun injury
indicates distance of fire upto 3 feet.
- Lucid interval is seen in extradural haemorrhage and insanity.
- In forgeries, oxalic acid is used as ink remover solution.
- Pond fracture (of skull) is found in children.
- Blasting effect is usually seen in a firearm injury from point blank range.
- Olive oil is used in stomach wash in carbolic acid poisoning.
- Fracture of middle cranial fossa causes injury to VII and VIII cranialnerves.
- Histologically amyloid deposits always begin intercellularly.
- Ischiopubic index is significantly more in females.
- Unconsciousness occurs immediately after head injury due toconcussion.
- A female has more sternal index, ischiopubic index and sciatic notchindex.
- Ewings postulates refer to accidents as a cause of death.
- Loss of muscular coordination and staggering gait are seen in patientwith blood alcohol concentration of 150-300
- Dinitro compounds poisoning resembles thyrotoxicosis.
- Aconite is known as Sweet poison.
- CuSO4 is antidote of Phosphorus.
- Foder’s test compares weight of lungs to the body.
- Diaphanus test denotes that after death, finger webs lose their lusture.
- Gaping of deep incised wound is dependent on cleavage lines of Langer.
- When a patient is injured or dies due to some unintentional act duringtreatment by a doctor or agent of the doctor or known as therapeutic
- Glass blowers shakes are seen with poisoning due to mercury.
- ‘Run amok’ is sometimes seen with cannabis.
- Abrus is viper-like poison.
- Bluish green hypostasis is seen in H2S poisoning
- Marquis test is used in opium poisoning.
- Datura is also known as ‘Road poison’.
- Marsh’s test and Reinsch test are used in arsenic poisoning.
- Exposure to nickel causes carcinoma nasopharynx.
- Best test for seminal stain is Florence test.
- Fall of a tooth is grievous injury.
- To conduct a postmortem, an authorisation letter is necessary frompolice officer, magistrate and coroner.
- A consent is invalid of obtained from a person who is intoxicated,
insane or under threat.
- In India, exhumation has no time limit.
- Colour changes of putrefaction are first observed in iliac fossa.
- Dipsomania is seen with alcohol.
- Subpoena is a seen kind of document.
- In exhumated bodies, the poison likely to be detected most significantlyis arsenic.
- Postmortem in a newborn is done by opening first the abdominal cavity.
- Tests for circulation are Magnus, Diaphanous and Icard’s.
- Compressed air is used to fire lead slugs in air rifle.
- Most important sign of defloration is ruptured hymen.
- Cafe coronary occurs when a person is intoxicated.
- Overlying is a type of smothering.
- Death in fresh water in comparison to salt water is earlier.
- Bevelling of inner table of skull is seen in fire arm entry wound.
- In burking, cause of death is traumatic asphyxia.
- Bansdola is a form of homicidal strangulation.
- Convincing proof of burial alive is sand in trachea and bronchi.
- In India. Coroner’s courts are held in Bombay.
- Corpus delict deals with body of crime.
- Burking is a name derived from person.
- Bullet is picked up with hands.
- The process which causes the drying up of tissues and internal viscerato a sufficient degree to halt putrefaction is called : mummification.
- The most important cause of temporary impotence is fear.
- Minimum quantity of blood required to be preserved to mineral poisoning.
- Superimposition is technique most useful for identification from skull.
- Brown atrophy of heart is seen in starvation deaths.
- Most common type of finger impression is loop.
- Lead poisoning is common in children.
- Presence of alveolar duct membrane in foetal autopsies in indicative oflive birth.
- The science of finger print was first demonstrated by Francis.
- Karl Pearson formula is used to calculate stature of the individual fromlong bones.
- Filigree burns are due to lightening.
- The commonest homicidal poison used in India is Arsenic.
- BAL is contraindicated in liver damage.
- KCN is ineffective as a poison if kept for long time, patient takes excessof carbohydrate or suffers from achlorhydria.
- Inquiry into circumstances of death is called inquest report.
- Non-poisonous pure metals are mercury, copper and lead.
- Phossy Jaw is produced by chronic white phosphorus poisoning.
- Ptysalism is seen in copper poisoning.
- Chloral hydrate is also called knockout drops or Micky Finn.
- Chromodacryorrhoea is sometimes preapilated by organophosphorus
- Rape is a cognizable offence.
- To make a positive identification with the help of a partial finger print,the points of similarity should be at least 16.
- The most striking symptoms of pregnancy is cessation of menstruation.
- The most reliable chemical test for blood is benzidine test.
- The position colour of tests for blood are —Benzidine test (Blue),Guiacum test (deep blue), Kastle Meyer test, Leucomalachite test (Peacock
blue), Haemin Crystal (dark brown).
- Takayama reagent is used in haemochromogen test.
- Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin.
- Term immerssion foot is used for cases with frost bite.
- Boxer’s attitude is seen in persons dying of burns.
- III and IV degree of burns are most painful. •
- Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose.
- Gunshot wound is a type of perforated wound.
- Supreme Court is purely an appellate Court.
- Police inquest can be done by a person not below the rank of sub-inspector.
- Haemodilution occurs in fresh water drowning.
- In chronic mercury poisoning, face is first affected.
- Wrist drop and foot drop may be seen in poisoning with lead.
- After taking cyanide, patient first feels numbness in extremities.
- Nux vomica seeds contain 2 alkaloids, strychnine and brucine.
- Lynching is a form of homicidal hanging.
- ‘Arrow poison’ is nux vomical (also called Kuchila).
- Commonest industrial metal poisoning is by lead.
- Haemorrhagic spots are found in poisoning by thallium.
- Amyl nitrate is antidote of cocaine poisoning.
- In sea water drowning, there is steep rise in Na+ and Mg++.
- Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death.
- Least common type of finger prints is composite.
- Preauricular sulcus is useful for identification of sex.
- Seminal emission is common in hanging.
- In methyl alcohol poisoning treatment recommended is ethyl alcohol andsodium bicarbonate.
- The presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth indicates drowning.
- Lower end of femur can help to determine the age.
- Resipsa Loquitur means evidence speaks for itself.
- Resorption elution technique is used for detection of blood stains.
- In females, obturator foramen is triangular shaped.
- Absorption of lead is mainly through lung.
- Incised like lacerated wound appears at forehead.
- Medical jurisprudence is the subject concerned with knowledge of lawin relation to the practice of medicine. In a nutshell, it deals with legal
aspects of medical practice.
- Crime means a social harm which has been defined and made punishableby law.
- No conduct money is paid in criminal cases, however, provision is madeby the Govt under sec. 312 Cr PC for payment of reasonable expenses of an
expert witness attending before any criminal court.
- The body is exhumed only when there is a written order issued by 1stclass Chief Judicial or Executive magistrate or the Coroner. There is not time
limit for exhumation in India.
- Puterfaction is the surest sign of death. The earliest sign is manifestedas greenish discoluration in the right ilic fossa.
- Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin and muscle proteins.
- Cold stiffening is due to solidfication of fats when body is exposed tovery low temperatures
- Presence of blood stained froth in the air passage and diatoms in
internal visceras and bone marrow is considered surest sign of drowning.
- The chief post mortem finding in case of starvation is distended gallbladder.
- Heat exhaustion is caused by dehydration and salt deficiency.
- Presence of soot in the respiratory passage is the surest sign of ante-mortem burn.
- Diatoms resist putrefaction.
- About 1900 cals is the minimum daily dieteic requirement below which
manifestations of starvation appear.
- For estimating surface area in burnt patient “Wallace’s Rule of Nine” has
- The Taser Gun is a device for immoblizing vicitims by using electric
current without causing death or serious injury.
- In drowning, Paltauf ‘s haemorrhages are seen subpleurally in the lungs
- Molecular death is more significant medico-legally than somatic death.
- Semen contains more than double quantity of CPK than any other body
fluid. Levels over 400 units are almost diagnostic. The enzyme is stable and
can be demonstrated as late as 6 months after soiling.